Generally, hepatitis refers to the inflammatory condition of the liver which among other things is mostly caused by infection with one of the hepatitis viruses (A, B, C, D or E). Hepatitis B is a disease caused by a blood borne virus known as hepatitis B virus (HBV). It’s a contagious life threatening disease of the liver which ranges in severity from a mild illness of few weeks to a critical lifelong illness. In other word hepatitis B is an important form of both acute and chronic viral hepatitis. It is considered to be more easily transmitted, with degree of infectiousness 50 to 100 times higher than Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). An estimated 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B globally and a contributor to an estimated 686,000 to 786,000 deaths worldwide each year due to its complications including cirrhosis and liver cancer. Approximately 5% of the world’s populations are carriers of HBV, defined as being positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. Like HIV, there are healthy carriers who show no symptom of hepatitis B and may be unaware of their hepatitis B status thereby making them potential risk to others. Hence, hepatitis B virus is a serious health problem worldwide including Sierra Leone. One of the important priorities for elimination and control of HBV is to know the factors involved in HBV transmission especially in the endemic regions. Hepatitis B is transmitted through percutaneous or mucosal contact with blood and body fluids infected with HBV. Such body fluid includes saliva, menstrual, vagina and seminal fluid. It can also be contacted during birth from an infected mother to her child, sexual intercourse with an infected partner, direct contact with the sore of an infected person as well as sharing needles/syringe or other drug injection equipment. While it is possible for anyone to be infected with the disease, those at greater risk of being infected with hepatitis B include infants born to infected mothers, persons with infected or multiple sex partners , users of intravenous drugs, men who have sex with men, people who live or travels to geographical regions with high Hepatitis B virus endemicity, persons with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), healthcare and public safety workers exposed to blood on the job, hemodialysis patients as well as those living with infected persons among others. Hepatitis B and its consequences including liver cancer and cirrhosis can be prevented by testing and vaccination.